Solusi University
P.O. Solusi
Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
Admissions: admissions@solusi.ac.zw
General Info: info@solusi.ac.zw
Student Finance: sfo@solusi.ac.zw
+263 (09) 887 457
+263 (09) 885 484

DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY, PEACE, & CONFICT STUDIES

Chairperson

Jefferson Ndimande

MSc Peace Leadership & Conflict Resolution, BA History, Certificate in Conflict Analysis

Lecturers

  • Buhlebenkosi Maphosa – MSc, PGDDS, BA
  • Dumisani Dziva – MA, BSc Hons
  • Edison Munsaka –PhD, MSc, Dipl.
  • Godfrey Hove –PhD, MA, BA Hons 
  • Innocent Nyathi – MA, PGDE, BA hons
  • Joshua Chakawa – PhD, MA, PGDE, BA
  • Meshack Zimunya – M.Phil, MA, BTh, Dip.L.L
  • Nqobile Sikhosana – MA, BA
  • Phillip Thebe – MSc, PGDSS, BA
  • Professor Percysledge Chigora – MSc, BSc
  • Tobias Guzura – MCom, MA, Advanced Cert, BA, Dip.Ed
  • Washington Mazorodze – MSc, BSc

MISSION
The department will endeavor to instill the Christian principles, which are strengthened by the African principles of Unhu, or Ubuntu. It strives to preach the gospel of tolerance and empathy in the world’s private and public institutions in an attempt to curb conflicts through the promotion of development, before they can escalate into violence. Within the framework of God’s teachings, the department will relate these principles with a foresight of equipping future leaders in the private and public realms.
PHILOSOPHY
Peace and Conflict Studies offers interdisciplinary insights into the nature and causes of conflicts, and analytical skills for handling conflicts by peaceful means. The programme draws upon the Seventh-day Adventist belief that God is peace as well as a respecter of human life. This helps to bring innovation to peace and conflict studies. Solusi University’s location offers a unique setting for the study of ways of transforming relationships between individuals, groups and institutions from destructive to constructive bonds.
Our Peace and Conflict Studies is designed to critically examine the theoretical and methodological issues surrounding the dynamics of peace and conflict in the contemporary world. The programme engages with the work of leading peace and conflict studies scholars at both conceptual and empirical levels. The programme addresses techniques in conflict resolution such as mediation in order to deepen our understanding and develop practical skills in conflict analysis Drawing from the fields of History, International Relations, Development Studies as well as Religion, the programme offers students the opportunity to engage with conflict management, conflict resolution, conflict transformation, peacebuilding and state- building theories and practices. Furthermore, the programme will critically address the conceptualisation of peace and the implementation of peacebuilding projects by global, regional, national and local actors, including the United Nations, the International Financial Institutions, development agencies and donors, INGOs, and local organisations in conflict-affected environments.
OBJECTIVES

  • Produce a graduate who is well-grounded and knowledgeable in Peace and Conflict Resolution
  • Develop the capacity to relate theoretical and methodological frameworks from a variety of disciplines to violent conflict and peace-building processes
  • Develop the capacity to design and carry out a research project that involves the use of diverse data sources
  • Develop skills for peace work through role plays, presentations, fieldwork and position
  • Provide students with a solid grounding in their chosen area of study
  • Broaden students’ prospects for post-graduate studies and carrier opportunities
  • Mold students who have an appreciation of international conflict, as well as critical social science thinking

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

  • The BA General Programme in Peace and Conflict Studies will be on full-time, Block-Release and Trimester basis.
  • Entry into the Peace and Conflict Studies programmes requires passes in at least 2 ‘A’ Level subjects from the Arts/Humanities one of which is preferably, a History related subject (e.g. History and Sociology). Applicants to these programmes should have at least 5 ‘O’ Level passes, including English Language or its equivalent as provided in the General Academic Regulations.

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES
The programme prepares students for exciting careers in government agencies, policy formulation and analysis, parliament, diplomacy, analyst, research, regional monitor, country specialist, social protection, ombud, humanitarian affairs, international relations, peace and security, technical experts (e.g. civil affairs officer, electoral systems, constitutional reform, gender affairs, governance, peace and democracy, security sector governance) aid organisations, peacekeeping, peacebuilding, peace education, training, project officer, programme officer, INGOs, NGOs, community reconstruction and development, civil society organisations, media and information analyst.
GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS

To be eligible for graduation, students must have successfully completed the following requirements:

Requirements
Credit Units
General Education 30
Core Courses 54
Minor Electives 12
Work Experience 3
BA Peace & COnflict Studies Total Credits 99

No course with a grade below C counts towards the fulfillment of the requirements of the programme.


BA in Peace & Conflict Studies

BACHELOR OF ARTS PEACE & CONFLICT DEGREE REQUIREMENTS

CORE COURSES

PCST 110 - Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies (3 Credits)
This course provides an introduction to the interdisciplinary study of peace and conflict, as well as to the peace and conflict studies major. It focuses on attempts to study and explain the evolution of warfare and the dynamics of peace from the early Modern period to today’s most imminent and controversial security issues. This course explores the relationships between global and historical patterns of mass violence, the theoretical paradigms that attempt to account for these patterns, and the various disciplinary and methodological approaches used to explore war and peace at all levels of analysis.
PCST 111 - Political Ideologies and Conflict (3 Credits)
This introductory course for the Peace and Conflict students examines the transcend from communal to international affairs, with special emphasis on the genesis of political ideologies, such as capitalism and socialism/communism, among others, and how these were challenged or introduced as panaceas to international relations. In addition, themes such as international relations, colonialism and race relations and how these influenced distribution of resources and wealth will be considered.
PCST 113 - Leadership, Theory and Practice (3 Credits)
This course introduces the students to the different theories that shape up leadership in the African society. The course looks at a variety of the practical modes of leadership and their impact in the public and private sector. The course also looks at leadership from a global perspective and the impact it has had at the different levels of society, from the grassroots to the international arena.
PCST 120 - Conflict, Peace and Development (3 Credits)
This course is an introduction to the theoretical, ethical and political underpinnings of the development-peacebuilding-security nexus, and the challenges of post-colonial, post-conflict reconstruction, development and reconciliation. Conflict, Peace and Development is an interdisciplinary course aimed at analysing and understanding the root causes of violence and the optimal social, economic and political conditions for the prevention of violence and/or its nonviolent management and transformation. It is a course with a very practical focus and will be of value to practitioners as well as theorists. It is a course that aid, development and other agencies will recognise, and it should equip students for careers in the development and peacebuilding sectors.
PCST 121 - Africa’s Political and Socio-Economic Issues (3 Credits)
This course will attempt to look at how the independent African leadership has been shaped in response to national and international issues. The course will specifically focus on the political issues and their impact on the socio-economic side in a number of African countries. The course will also examine the political transition that came at the collapse of communism/socialism in the early 1990s.
PCST 122 - United Nations and Peacekeeping (3 Credits)
The youth have been central to most of Africa’s violent conflict acting as child soldiers as well as foot soldiers used by the ambitious. Explanations such as social and political exclusion, psychological perspective, greed and opportunity, ease of availability of weapons and the so-called youth bulge have been sighted as triggers for youth involvement in violent conflict. These have been viewed by scholars as a social Molotov cocktail ready to be ignited. However, youth may also be agents for peace building and conflict transformation. To this end therefore, the course examines the nexus between youth, conflict and peacebuilding.
PCST 210 - Media, Civil Society and Conflict(3 Credits)
This course will begin by looking at theories that have influenced the civics and the position of the civil society in dealing with political, social and economic issues in a globalizing world. The course will sample regional African examples where the influences of trade unions, NGOs and the Bretton Woods institutions have been felt, in relation to political and socio-economic spheres.
PCST 211 - Women, Peace and Conflict(3 Credits)
This course will connect the traditional and cultural roles of women in Africa, to the common modern trends that have shaped their significance in continental politics and socio-economic structures. Contemporarily speaking, the role played by women, men and children in independent African conflicts and peace processes, have often been overstated and/or understated. Hence this course analyses the new global movement that is raising awareness of the essence of women in either being part of conflicts or peace building processes in the African context. Ultimately, this course traces the history and development of the movement to affirm and expand women’s roles in peace building.
PCST 212 - Youth, Conflict and Peacebuilding in Africa (3 Credits)
The youth have been central to most of Africa’s violent conflict acting as child soldiers as well as foot soldiers used by the ambitious. Explanations such as social and political exclusion, psychological perspective, greed and opportunity, ease of availability of weapons and the so-called youth bulge have been sighted as triggers for youth involvement in violent conflict. These have been viewed by scholars as a social Molotov cocktail ready to be ignited. However, youth may also be agents for peace building and conflict transformation. To this end therefore, the course examines the nexus between youth, conflict and peacebuilding.
PCST 221 - Research Methods in Peace and Conflict Studies (3 Credits)
This course provides students with a critical understanding of research methodologies relevant to the programmes of Peace and Conflict Studies. Students will explore conceptual and theoretical perspectives on research, and will be encouraged to reflect on their own relational and ethical position toward who/what they are studying. It also aims to expose students to as many methods and techniques as possible and to encourage them to apply such methods in Peace and Conflict Studies-related research. Emphasis is also placed on the development of practical skills for the design and conduct of research projects by drawing on exemplars of studies from diverse contexts, and by covering a range of specific quantitative and qualitative research methods including surveys, interviews, content analysis, case-studies, participatory action research, evaluation research, and ethnography.
PCST 222 - Mediation and Negotiation Skills (3 Credits)
The course exposes the students to a combination of presentations, reading, practical activities and discussion that are applicable to real life situations. It examines the principles and different forms of conflict, negotiation and mediation. Further, many practitioners consider mediation and negotiation as critical components in the conflict resolution activities. This course will expose the students to the theories and practices of negotiation and mediation through a number of case studies in which the principles have been applied, and as connected to participation in workshops, where pragmatic presentations by civic, peace and leadership practitioners are made.
PCST 400 - Research Project (3 Credits)
Students are expected to write supervised research project (15,000 – 18,000 words) on a Peace and Conflict Studies topic based on original research. Enrolment in this course requires one to have successfully taken and passed Peace Research Methods and all courses from the first six semesters. Students are expected to take up this course in their final year of study.
PCST 411 - Nonviolence: Philosophy and Practice (3 Credits)
The course explores the theoretical underpinnings of nonviolence as a way of life and as a political and social strategy; the seminal thinkers and writers in the development of nonviolence; the moral basis, if any, for nonviolence; whether nonviolence itself can serve as a moral basis for other theories; the criticisms raised against theorists and practitioners of pacifism and nonviolence; the defenders and critics of the just war tradition; and the theoretical differences between pragmatic nonviolence and principled nonviolence.
PCST 413 - Religion, Violence and Peace (3 Credits)
The course examines the role of religion in causing and nurturing violence and in promoting peace themes, which have emerged as core in the pursuit for peace in the African continent. The course will examine some of the African traditional and endogenous religions and connect them to the contemporary peace efforts based on religion, while on the other hand, also focusing on the problematic areas that have been fanned by religion as experienced in countries like Sudan, Somalia and Nigeria. The course will also look at the role of world religious leaders that have also made a difference in Africa, such as Desmond Tutu, Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.
PCST 415 - Public Policy (3 Credits)
This course deals with conceptual and theoretical frameworks of public policy. It examines different models of public policy-making, offers a framework for policy analysis, and explores current policy contexts in Zimbabwe, Africa and elsewhere. It makes students aware of the challenges surrounding policy formation and implementation and the ways in which these can be addressed, including effective policy analysis, the management of vested interests, public consultation and public relations, monitoring and evaluation, and interdepartmental coordination and relations. It examines the roles of various participants in the policy process: legislators, political parties, interest groups, civil society groups, media, administrative structures, citizens and the judiciary. Using a comparative perspective, the course discusses how policy is formulated, how it changes, and why.
PCST 422 - Transitional Justice and Reconciliation (3 Credits)
Peacebuilding is a major part of a broader discourse of ‘transitional justice’, ‘state- building’, ‘humanitarian intervention’ and ‘post-conflict societies’. Drawing upon by theoretical issues and case-studies the course evaluates different techniques used to re-build trust within and between communities and efforts to heal social divisions. Key themes and issues of transitional justice theory and practice consistent with the overarching questions considered during the course: how does transitional justice contribute to peacebuilding, and justice by and for whom? These issues include the apparent contradictions between pursuing justice and reconciliation, or retributive and restorative justice; the interaction between introduced or imposed transitional justice of mechanisms and traditional, indigenous approaches; the perceived dilemmas of pursuing justice or peace during ongoing violence or when there has been no ‘transition’; gender perspectives, civil society and diaspora participation in transitional justice; and the tensions between outside interveners, governments and local communities in the design and implementation of transitional justice mechanisms.
PCST 424 - Public International Law (3 Credits)
The course aims at providing (international) students with a basic knowledge of the various aspects of public international law. It addresses key features of international law, such as: the sources of international law with emphasis on customary international law and the law of treaties; adjudication and enforcement of international law; the structure of the international community and participants in the international legal system; the peaceful settlement of international disputes; state responsibility; jurisdiction and immunity; international maritime law and the law of the sea; the use of force; international human rights; the law of armed conflict and International Criminal Law.
DEVS 113 - Project Financial Management(3 Credits)
This course is designed to provide skills to develop project proposals that will help participants to be able to mobilize a diverse range of financial and non-financial resources for their organizations, to identify a range of potential sources appropriate to their context and devise an effective resource mobilization strategy for the organization that is consistent with the values of the community and sector of which they are a part. The course encourages the discipline of clear and specific thinking throughout the proposal development process, and the skills for designing, implementing and evaluating an efficient resource mobilization campaign. Lessons will be drawn from practical cases such as the Obama Crowd Funding Campaigns and various other resources mobilization strategies used by Governments and Non-Governmental Organizations from within and without Zimbabwe. In addition, the course will also enable the students to write projects proposals, equip them with monitoring techniques, monitoring indicators of success and challenges, and proposal writing within the larger realm of the logical framework for appraisal.
ATWE 300 - Attachment: Work Experience (3 Credits)
Collaboration with local, regional, national and international conflict and peace organizations provides students with a wide range of internships/attachments. The internship/attachment will be 3 months long at the end of the students’ 2nd year of study. At the completion of internship/attachment, each student will be required to write and submit a report of 2500 to 4000 words. Assessment of the internship/attachment will be in accordance with the university’s regulation.

ELECTIVE COURSES (Select only 4 Courses from the following:)

PCST 112 - Conflict, Theory and Practice (3 Credits)
This survey course examines the evolution of the area of conflict resolution/management/transformation. The course emphasises on the basic negotiation theory and contemporary examples of its use in a number of settings. It attempts to address the practical role of third party in conflict intervention, including the use of mediators and arbitrators. Emphasis is placed on identifying the theory that underlines intervention models and specific ways in which these are applied, vis-a-vis individual and group theories.
PCST 214 - Environmental Conflict (3 Credits)
The course addresses the need for a clearer understanding of the multiple relationships between the environment and international, national and local security issues. It is built on the premise that environmental problems are closely linked to security issues at the individual, national and international levels. Environmental issues have the potential to contribute to increased intra-state conflict levels. Competition over territory and natural resources often leads to social conflict. This course focuses on the ways power dynamics shape landscapes, cause conflict, and exacerbate problems of ecological scarcity and degradation
PCST 215 - Group Dynamics (3 Credits)
This course will build on leadership in recreation through a variety of applied experiences leading groups and teams. Students will identify facilitative and teambuilding skills and develop the abilities needed to effectively address dysfunctional team behaviour. By analysing the maturity/diversity of the groups they will then apply a variety of leadership styles to maximize group performance.
PCST 220 - Conflict Analysis and Conflict Transformation (3 Credits)
The course examines theoretical and practical frameworks for understanding conflict, with particular attention to structures and dynamics inhibiting peace. The course provides students with some of the analytical skills needed to understand how conflicts develop and escalate, to identify factors that can lead to or sustain violence, and to map root causes of conflict (e.g., human rights violations, needs deprivation, cultural and religious differences, inequality, resource misuse and environmental degradation) at interpersonal, intergroup, and international levels. course explores the theoretical and practical foundations of various approaches to working with conflict to advance positive goals such as social equity and reconciliation. Attention will be given to a range of conflict resolution methods and practices (facilitation, negotiation, mediation, arbitration, adjudication) as well as to principles of restorative justice and dynamics of collective peace building practice.
PCST 223 - International Relations and Diplomacy (3 Credits)
This course is designed for students with no previous background in international relations. The course will introduce students to the institutional, structural and political mechanisms that condition relationships between states and between states and non-state actors. The aim of the course is to provide students with a broad overview of the frameworks of analysis, actors, institutions, issues and processes responsible for international relations, the causes of war, inter-state economic competition, and the structural configuration of power in the international system.
PCST 224 - Peace Economics (3 Credits)
A vibrant economy where resources are utilized effectively, government services operate efficiently, entrepreneurs thrive, and proceeds are equitably distributed is an essential element of a sustained and durable peace. With this in mind, the course focuses on the design of socio-sphere’s political, economic and cultural institutions and their interacting policies and actions with the goal of preventing, mitigating, or resolving violent conflict within and between societies. This violent conflict could be of any type and could involve either latent or actual violence. Presuming knowledge of the cost of violence, it focusses on the benefits of (re) constructing society, with the view towards achieving irreversible, stable peace. This course explores the conflict-development nexus and reviews recent efforts to rebuild war-torn societies. It introduces students to concepts and tools for effective economic reconstruction in conflict-affected states and to develop a framework for sustainable and equitable economic progress in fragmented and resource constrained environments. To that end, the students will learn to implement and assess programs for protecting and managing natural resources, mobilising domestic resources, coordinating external assistance, fostering good corporate citizenship, and providing adequate and appropriate infrastructure and services within the context of sound fiscal and monetary policies. Case study discussions and a simulation exercise reinforce the learning objectives.
PCST 225 - Alternative Dispute Resolution (3 Credits)
The course introduces students to the principles and practice of alternative dispute resolution (ADR). It examines the various processes that collectively constitute ADR, for instance, negotiation; mediation; arbitration, early neutral evaluation. It does so by examining the nature of disputes, the history and theory of dispute resolution and the development of ADR since the 1970s. The module includes practical exercises in negotiation and mediation to illustrate the nature and limitations of ADR and the skills of the mediator. It provides experience in the value and limitations of adopting a ‘problem-solving’ approach to disputes. Through practical experience in simulated exercises, students will gain an understanding of the dynamics of mediation and negotiation and the necessary skill of the mediation.
PCST 412 - Globalization, Conflict and Peace (3 Credits)
This course explores the paradoxical manifestations of globalization, which has not only logically led to the progression of the African society, but also to the dysfunction development of the contemporary international order, on the other. It will examine the geopolitical and socio-economic promises and challenges that come with globalization. On the hand, the course attempts to look at ways to manage the process of globalization so as to minimize its dysfunctions and maximize its benefits to development and humanity. The course will also seek to examine the nexus that exists between globalization and peace, vis-à-vis other tenets, such as peacemaking and peacebuilding.
PCST 414 - Peace Education (3 Credits)
The course explores a range of conceptual/analytical perspectives for a holistic and critical understanding of the theory and practice of peace education. Students will explore the philosophical, cultural, pedagogical and curricular elements of Peace Education and, within that context, will develop an understanding of the theory and practice of effective conflict resolution education. Emphasis will be on experiential learning, engaged and reflective pedagogies, and the practice of transformation learning as tools for social change administrative structures, citizens and the judiciary. Using a comparative perspective, the course discusses how public policy is formulated, how it changes, and why.
PCST 420 - Human Rights and Governance in Africa (3 Credits)
The course examines the intrinsic, dynamic relationship between peace, politics, governance and human rights. It considers governance models, principles of human rights, dynamics of state formation, especially in Africa with emphasis on evolution of nation-states, the role of colonialism and matters of nationalism vis-à-vis ethnicity, regionalism and the role of religion. It underscores issues and dilemmas of democracy in Africa with specific reference to good governance and poverty reduction with reference to matters of evaluation and monitoring of governance of human rights. The role of various institutions in governance and administration is discussed.
PCST 421 - Disarmament and Demilitarization in Africa (3 Credits)
This course emphasizes on the disarmament and demilitarization efforts that has been put in place in post-independent Africa, as part and parcel of the concerted peace initiatives of a number of regional countries, especially in the post-conflict period. The course also examines the challenges brought about by the gun culture phenomena and the proliferation of land mines and small arms in the African continent.
PCST 423 - Post Conflict Reconstruction and Peacebuilding(3 Credits)
Rebuilding states in the aftermath of conflict and state failure represents one of the foremost challenges facing the international community. The post-Cold War era has shown that weak states represent as great a threat to international security and stability as strong ones. The transition from war to peace and state failure to stability in these states can be conceptualized as encompassing three separate but interrelated transitions, in the economic, political and security spheres. The course will deconstruct and analyze this triple transition, examine both its theoretical roots and practical application with reference to a number of recent case studies.

GENERAL EDUCATION COURSES

Behaviour Development
CONV 111-412: CONVOCATION (0 Credits)
ORIE 100: ORIENTATION (0 Credits)
WOED 121-122: WORK EDUCATION (0 Credits)
Health and Physical Education
PHED 116: Physical Education (2 Credits)
HLED 115: Healthier Living (2 Credits)
Mathematics
MATH 159: General Algebra (3 Credits)
STAT 160: Basic Statistics (2 Credits)
Languages Communication
COMM 102: Communication Skills and Academic Writing (3 Credits)
Natural & Social Sciences

BIOL 389: Philosophical Biology (2 Credits)
HIST 276: Selected Themes in Zimbabwean History (2 Credits)
Computers
INSY 100: Computers & Data Processing(3 Credits)
Ethics and Philosophy
RELT 105: Christian Beliefs (3 Credits)
RELB 180: Studies in the Gospels (3 Credits)
RELH 360: Seventh-day Adventist Heritage (2 Credits)
RELT 215: Philosophy of Christian Education (2 Credits)
RELT 215: Philosophy of Christian Education (2 Credits)